Because cognitive abilities are positively correlated, there is an assumption that cognitive abilities should be evenly developed. When psychologists examine cognitive profiles, they often describe any features that deviate from the expected flat profile.
It is true, mathematically, that the expected profile IS flat. However, this does not mean that flat profiles are common. There is a very large set of possible profiles and only a tiny fraction are perfectly flat. Profiles that are nearly flat are not particularly common, either. Variability is the norm.
Sometimes it helps to get a sense of just how uneven cognitive profiles typically are. That is, it is good to fine-tune our intuitions about the typical profile with many exemplars. Otherwise it is easy to convince ourselves that the reason that we see so many interesting profiles is that we only assess people with interesting problems.
If we use the correlation matrix from the WAIS-IV to randomly simulate multivariate normal profiles, we can see that even in the general population, flat, “plain-vanilla” profiles are relatively rare. There are features that draw the eye in most profiles.
If cognitive abilities were uncorrelated, profiles would be much more uneven than they are. But even with moderately strong positive correlations, there is still room for quite a bit of within-person variability.
Let’s see what happens when we look at profiles that have the exact same Full Scale IQ (80, in this case). The conditional distributions of the remaining scores are seen in the “violin” plots. There is still considerable diversity of profile shape even though the Full Scale IQ is held constant.